It’s not a function of time, it’s more a mixture of a propensity for travel sickness (most people are fine), how comfortable the journey is, and a bit of psychology. When I was little, back in the 60s, we used to visit some relatives who lived about 30 miles away. The first time we visited I was fine, but afterwards I always got travel sick and I had to take a pill before starting. When my mother asked why I was sick, when I hadn’t been before, I’m told that I replied “I didn’t know how far it was”, which suggests there’s some psychology involved there (and cars back then were nowhere near as comfortable as they are now). On the other hand I can (and have) travel for days on a train with no ill effect.
I also remember once crossing the Irish Sea overnight in a storm when one of the ships’ two engines broke down, and I was one of the few people who wasn’t seasick!